MATERNAL LEUKOCYTOSIS AS DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS IN SPONTANEOUSLY DECLARED PRETERM BIRTH
Keywords:Leuc, sPTB, TB, leukocytosis
Spontaneous preterm birth is the basic problem of perinatal mortality in Bulgaria. Pregnancy is characterized by physiological leukocytosis - determined by twice increased neutrophils levels, unchanged monocyte levels, and a reduction in the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The leukocytosis is particularly pronounced in the last trimester, due to physiological stress during pregnancy, and it is a result of the increased inflammatory response, a consequence of selective immune tolerance, immunosuppression, and fetus-immunomodulation.
The objective of this study was to investigate and to appreciate maternal leukocytosis as potential diagnostic markers in spontaneously declared preterm birth and term birth declared cases.
Methods: The case–control study was performed in UMBAL-City Hospital, Stara Zagora during 2017–2020. The study involved 200 patients, split into two groups: G1- the healthy pregnant women, n1=100 with а registered singleton pregnancy, at gestational age 37-39+6, gave birth on the term (TB); G2- the PTB patients, n2=100, confirmed clinically by cardiotocography for gestation >32 weeks. The highly sensitive Leuko-TIC-ELISA-WBC (upper limit of the normal number of Leuc during pregnancy - 15x109 per L) test was used for investigation. Blood samples were taken by puncture of the v.cubitalis in an anticoagulant at the time of hospitalization and examined within 1 hrs. Patients with systemic chronic illness and infections were excluded from the study.
The results showed statistically significant Leuc reduction in SPTB patients (14.31±2.66×109/L, p>0.03), compared to the increased (14.67±3.21×109/L) (in normal-15x109L) Leuc values in the TB group.In conclusion, the results of the Leuc value confirm the presence of a systemic leukocytosis/oxidative inflammatory reaction at the time of declaring SPTB and TB.
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