PREVALENCE OF PREMENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS AMONG BULGARIAN WOMEN
Keywords:Premenstrual symptoms, Emotional well-being, Bulgarian women
INTRODUCTION: Premenstrual symptoms are common and can worsen women's quality of life. This study examines the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms such as weight gain; swelling of ankles, feet, and hands; frequent change of mood; fatigue; difficulty concentrating; depression; nervousness and irritability; and nausea.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are: (1) to reveal the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms among Bulgarian women and (2) to establish how the presence of premenstrual symptoms affects the Emotional well-being of women.
METHODS: The applied methodology includes an online-based anonymous study, which focuses on the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms among Bulgarian women and their emotional health. A characteristic of the studied contingent on age, BMI, and physical activity was made.
RESULTS: The results of 126 women surveyed were analyzed. Of these, 96.8% have at least one premenstrual symptom. 30.2% have one or two symptoms, 43.7% have 3-4 symptoms and 23% have 5-8 symptoms. 14.8% of women with symptoms reported worsening of their symptoms because of increased stress associated with COVID-19. There is a statistically significant correlation between the number of symptoms and the emotional well-being of women.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of premenstrual symptoms is common among the studied Bulgarian women. A greater number of symptoms has a negative effect on women's emotional well-being. We consider it appropriate to introduce the application of physiotherapeutic methods as well as alternative therapies for the treatment and prevention of premenstrual syndrome.
Bhuvaneswari, K., Rabindran, P., & Bharadwaj, B. (2019). Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and its impact on quality of life among selected college students in Puducherry. The National medical journal of India, 32(1), 17–19. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-258X.272109
Çitil, E. T., & Kaya, N. (2021). Effect of pilates exercises on premenstrual syndrome symptoms: a quasi-experimental study. Complementary therapies in medicine, 57, 102623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102623
Dickerson, L. M., Mazyck, P. J., & Hunter, M. H. (2003). Premenstrual syndrome. American family physician, 67(8), 1743–1752.
Dye, L., & Blundell, J. E. (1997). Menstrual cycle and appetite control: implications for weight regulation. Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 12(6), 1142–1151. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/12.6.1142
Es-Haghee, S., Shabani, F., Hawkins, J., Zareian, M. A., Nejatbakhsh, F., Qaraaty, M., & Tabarrai, M. (2020). The Effects of Aromatherapy on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2020, 6667078. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6667078
Hantsoo, L., & Epperson, C. N. (2015). Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Epidemiology and Treatment. Current psychiatry reports, 17(11), 87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0628-3
Matsumoto, T., Egawa, M., Kimura, T., & Hayashi, T. (2019). A potential relation between premenstrual symptoms and subjective perception of health and stress among college students: a cross-sectional study. BioPsychoSocial medicine, 13, 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13030-019-0167-y
Mohebbi Dehnavi, Z., Jafarnejad, F., & Sadeghi Goghary, S. (2018). The effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise on severity of physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: a clinical trial study. BMC women's health, 18(1), 80. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0565-5
Mushtaq, A., Arif, S., & Sabih, F. (2020). Premenstrual symptoms as predictor of quality of life in reproductive-aged women of Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir: A cross sectional study. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 70(12(B)), 2394–2397. https://doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.417
Pearce, E., Jolly, K., Jones, L. L., Matthewman, G., Zanganeh, M., & Daley, A. (2020). Exercise for premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BJGP open, 4(3), bjgpopen20X101032. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgpopen20X101032
Pokharel, P., Rana, J., Moutchia, J., Uchai, S., Kerri, A., Luna Gutiérrez, P. L., & Islam, R. M. (2020). Effect of exercise on symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in low and middle-income countries: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open, 10(9), e039274. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039274
Rapkin, A. J., & Mikacich, J. A. (2006). Premenstrual syndrome in adolescents: diagnosis and treatment. Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER, 3 Suppl 1, 132–137.
Tsai S. Y. (2016). Effect of Yoga Exercise on Premenstrual Symptoms among Female Employees in Taiwan. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(7), 721. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070721
Vaghela, N., Mishra, D., Sheth, M., & Dani, V. B. (2019). To compare the effects of aerobic exercise and yoga on Premenstrual syndrome. Journal of education and health promotion, 8, 199. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_50_19
World Health Organization (WHO, 2020) Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity#:~:text=living%20with%20disability%3A-,should%20do%20at%20least%20150%E2%80%93300%20minutes%20of%20moderate%2Dintensity,intensity%20activity%20throughout%20the%20week
Zhang, H., Zhu, M., Song, Y., & Kong, M. (2014). Baduanjin exercise improved premenstrual syndrome symptoms in Macau women. Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan, 34(4), 460–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0254-6272(15)30047-9
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author is the copyright holder. Distribution license: CC Attribution 4.0.