COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIENCE OF LONELINESS BETWEEN BULGARIANS AND RUSSIANS
Keywords:loneliness, differences, Bulgarian, Russian example
Loneliness is a painful and alienating experience, which is an increasingly widespread phenomenon all over the globe. However, this phenomenon is perceived and interpreted differently in the world. The present study aims to compare the emotional, social, and romantic loneliness between Bulgarians and Russians. The two Slavic countries are historically and culturally close, but at the same time, there are many differences. Some studies have found that in the minds of both Russian and Bulgarian young people, loneliness is associated with both negative and positive aspects. This creates a common ground for the analysis and interpretation of this phenomenon in both countries. But the Russian people are more characterized by a positive-resource view of loneliness, while Bulgarian young people emphasize the negative. The study involved 608 people from Bulgaria and Russia aged 18-73 years. They completed the short version of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults by Di Tommaso E., Brannen C., Best L.A. (2004). The results indicated that „romantic loneliness“was108 the most pronounced and present with its frequency in the content of the overall experience of loneliness. This outlines deficits, expectations, and emotions that are realized / function / in the deeply personal world of the person, of the studied groups of adults both in Bulgaria and in Russia. In second place in terms of its representation is the "social loneliness", which stands out among the studied adults from Bulgaria according to its marginal values. In the third place as third structural-content component is the "emotional loneliness", which is especially present in the experiences of the respondents from Bulgaria in comparison with those from Russia. Statistically significant results on the factors "country", “age” and "marital status" are also discussed.
Alexandrova N. (2015). A little book about the great loneliness. Sofia, Bulgaria: Prof. Petko Venedikov, 129 p. (in Bulgarian)
Alexandrova, N., Babakova, L., Velkov, Yu. (2020). Influence of economic factors on the experience of loneliness in adulthood. In Sat. "Personality, well-being and health in the organization", pp.696-703 (in Bulgarian)
Di Tommaso E., Brannen C., Best L.A.(2004). Measurement and validity characteristics of the Short Version of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults // Educational & Psychological Measurement. Vol. 64 (1). P. 99—119. DOI:10.1177/0013164403258450
DiTomasso, E. i Spinner, B. (1993). The development and initial validation of the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults (SELSA). Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 127-134.
Junttila, N., Ahlqvist-Björkroth, S., Aromaa, M., Rautava, P., Piha, J.,Vauras, M., et al. (2013). Mothers’ and fathers’ loneliness during pregnancy, infancy, and toddlerhood. Psychology and Education, 50, 98–104
Lacković-Grgin K. (2008). Usamljenost: Fenomenologija, teorije i istraživanja. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap
Minkov, M. (2007). Why we are different. Sofia: Klasika I stil, pp. 264, ISBN 9789543270293 (in Bulgarian)
Osin E.N., Leontiev, D.A. (2013). Differential questionnaire of loneliness experience: structure and properties. In Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2013. T. 10, No. 1. P. 55–81. (in Russian)
Russell, D. (1982). The measurement of loneliness. U: L. A. Peplau i D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy (pp. 81–104). New York, NY: Wiley.
Safonova, M.V. (2012). Social ideas of modern Russians about the lonely person. In "Problems of psychology in the 21st century", Volume 4, pp. 71-84, ISSN 2029-8587 (in Russian)
Sergeeva, A.V. (2017). Russians. Behavior stereotypes, traditions, mentality. Flinta-Nauka, pp. 440, ISBN: 978-5-89349-626-0 (in Russian).
Strizhitskaya O. Yu., Murtazina IR, Babakova LV, Alexandrova N. Kh. (2020). Representations of loneliness in Russia and Bulgaria (on the example of students) // Izv. Sarat. un-ta. New sir. Ser. Acmeology of education. Developmental psychology. T. 9, issue. 4 (36). Pp. 367–376. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/2304-9790-2020-9-4-367-376 (in Russian)
Strizhitskaya OY, Petrash MD, Murtazina IR, Vartanyan GA, Manevsky FS, Alexandrova NH, Babakova LV (2020). Adaptation of the Bulgarian version of the scale of social and emotional loneliness (SELSA-S) for adults and the elderly // Consultative Psychology and Psychotherapy. Volume 28. № 4. pp. 79–97. doi: 10.17759 / cpp.2020280405 (in Russian)
The Hofstede centre. National cultures. Countries (n.d.). Retrieved from: http; //geert-hofstede.com/
Vanhalst, J., Luyckx, K. & Goossens, L. (2014). Experiencing loneliness in adolescence: A matter of individual characteristics, negative peer experiences, or both? Review of Social Development, 23, 100–118.
Weiss, R. S. (1973). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Zhao, J., Song, F., Chen, Q., Li, M. & Kong, F. (2018). Linking shyness to loneliness in Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of core self-evaluation and social support. Personality and Individual Differences,125, 140–144.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author is the copyright holder. Distribution license: CC Attribution 4.0.