• Jana Kamenická Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Faculty of Education, Department of English Language and Culture, Nitra, Slovakia



emotionally competent stimuli, emotion-involved processing, foreign language pedagogy, TEFL


The aim of this paper is to summarize the findings of research done in the field of foreign language pedagogy, neuroscience, and psychology with regard to the emotion-cognition relationship. Several studies of qualitative and quantitative nature, which were conducted on teenage and university students, suggest that cognition is strongly affected by emotional experience. Especially positive emotionally competent stimuli experienced when learning a foreign language can contribute to deeper processing and better long-term retention, and at the same time, it is suggested that they have the power to alleviate foreign language anxiety and enhance foreign language enjoyment and the motivation of learners. With regard to these research findings and several cognitive theories, the Apple Tree Model of Emotion-Involved Processing in Foreign Language Learning is proposed and discussed – as well as several ideas on how to emotionally stimulate foreign language learners, which are applicable not only in foreign language classes but also out of the class. Their addictive nature ensures that learners can and do learn the foreign language every day at any time of the day in an authentic language environment – even without realizing it – doing it as a hobby. 


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How to Cite

Kamenická, J. . (2021). APPLE TREE MODEL OF EMOTION-INVOLVED PROCESSING. Proceedings of CBU in Social Sciences, 2, 184-194.