• Migena Kecaj University of Shkoder “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Faculty of Education Sciences, Shkodër
  • Edmond Rapti University of Tirana, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tirana
  • Aigars Andersons Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Social, Economic and Humanities Research of Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences



attachment, development, parent, peer, self-esteem


The present study investigates the relationship between parent and peer attachment bonds on the development of self-esteem during late adolescence. The sample was randomly selected. Data was collected from 387 participants including 166 male and 221 female students from seven high schools of the Shkoder Municipality in Albania. A self-developed Demographic Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) were administered. A Pearson Correlation and Independent sample t-test were applied. Specific attention is focused on the assessment of attachment in adolescence. The results show the existence of a significant positive correlation between parental/peer attachment and self-esteem. Concerning gender differences during late adolescence, females showed higher attachment with parents and peers than males, but there were no gender differences in self-esteem. This research enables us to develop new insight into the importance of parent and peer attachment for a healthy adolescence.


Ainsworth, M. D., & Bell, S. M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41(1), 49–67.

Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The Inventory of Parent and PeerAttachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427-453.

Appleyard, K., Berlin, L.J. (2007). Supporting healthy relationship between young children and their parents. Center for child and family process: Duke.

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children’s aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72 (1), 187-206.

Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child's tie to his mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 350-373.

Bowlby, J. (1973) Attachment and Loss: Volume 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.

Cummings, E. M. and Cichetti, D. (1990) ‘Toward a Transactional Model of Relations Between Attachment and Depression’, in M. T. Greenberg, D. Cichetti and E. M., Cummings (eds) Attachment in Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention, pp. 339–72. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. Press.

Elicker, J., Englund, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (1992). Predicting peer competence and peer relationships in childhood from early parent–child relationships. In R. D. Parke & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Family–peer relationships: Modes of linkage (p. 77–106). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc

Grossman, K. E. and Grossman, K. (1991) ‘Attachment Quality As An Organizer of Emotional and Behavioral Responses in A Longitudinal Perspective’, in C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde and P. Morris (eds) Attachment Across the Lifecycle, pp 93–114. London: Routledge.

Harris JR. Where is the child’s environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychol Rev. 1995;102:458–89.

Iyer, R., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., Eisenberg, N., & Thompson, M. (2010). Peer victimization and effortful control: Relations to school engagement and academic achievement. Merrill-PalmerQuarterly,56, 361–387. doi:10.1353/mpq.0.0058

Kobak, R. R. and Sceery, A. (1988) ‘Attachment in Late Adolescence: Working Models, Affect Regulation, and Representations of Self and Others’, Child Development 59; 135–46.

Rayan, K. O. (2010). Attachment relationship: Nurturing healthy bonds. Chicago.: Learning seed.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press point. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stein, H., Koontz, A. D., Fonagy, P., Allen, J. G., Fultz, J., Brethour, J. R., Jr., Allen, D., & Evans, R. B. (2002). Adult attachment: What are the underlying dimensions? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 75(1), 77–91.




How to Cite

Kecaj, M. ., Rapti, E. ., & Andersons, A. . (2021). THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL AND PEER ATTACHMENT ON SELF-ESTEEM AT LATE ADOLESCENCE. Proceedings of CBU in Social Sciences, 2, 195-199.
صندلی اداری سرور مجازی ایران Decentralized Exchange
فروشگاه اینترنتی صندلی اداری جوراب افزایش قد ژل افزایش قد