PSYCHOMETRIC INDICATORS OF THE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LONELINESS SCALE FOR ADULTS - SHORT VERSION (SELSA-S) IN BULGARIA
Keywords:psychometric indicators, validation, Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale, Aging, Adulthood
This article examines the psychometric indicators of Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, the short version (SELSA-S; DiTommaso, Brannen, & Best, 2004). The scale contains 15 items, divided into three scales: social loneliness, emotional loneliness, and romantic loneliness. The survey was attended by 1713 persons over 60 years of which were 1042 women and 671 men; and 383 of whom were in early-to-middle adulthood (20-55 years). The results showed high-reliability ratios for both the full scale (α = 0.825) and the three subscales (α = 0.727-0.845) versions. The factor analysis showed a four-factor structure of the scale. There were also statistically significant correlations between the three subscales. It was found that social and emotional loneliness had the strongest influence among older people. Therefore, it was necessary to create more opportunities for satisfactory communication, forms, and functioning of social contacts. It was found that the romantic loneliness had the strongest influence on younger people, i.e., they experienced significantly the lack of a partner by them or dissatisfaction with him.
Adamczyk, K., & DiTommaso, E. (2014). Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S). Psihologijske teme, 23(3), 327-341.
Aleksandrova, N. (2015) Malka knizhka za golyamata samota [A little book about great loneliness]. Sofia: Petko Venedikov Publ., 130 p. (In Bulgarian)
Alexandrova, N. (2019). Concepts of researching the loneliness of elderly, Psychology in Education, 2019, vol. 1, no. 2, 176-183 DOI: 10.33910/2686-9527-2019-1-2-176-183
Cecen, A. (2007). The Turkish short version of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S): Initial development and validation. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 35(6), 717-734
Davidson, S.& Rossall, Ph. (2015). Age UK Loneliness Evidence Review. Available from: https://www.ageuk.org.uk/globalassets/age-uk/documents/reports-and-publications/reports-and-briefings/health--wellbeing/rb_june15_lonelines_in_later_life_evidence_review.pdf /
DiTomasso, E., & Spinner, B. (1993). The development and initial validation of a social and emotional loneliness scale for adults (SELSA). Personality and Individual Differences, 14(1), 127-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90182-3
DiTommaso, E., Brannen, C., Best, L. (2004) Measurement and validity characteristics of the short version of the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 99-119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164403258450
Guimarães, A.L.L., Fonsêca, P.N., Machado, G.M.A., Guimarães, C.L.C., & Silva, P.G.N. (2019). Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale: psychometrics evidences in the Brazilian northeast. Ciencias Psicológicas, 13(2), 283 - 295. https://doi.org/10.22235/cp.v13i2.1885
Jowkar, B. (2012). Psychometric properties of the short form of the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults (SELSA-S). Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 5(4), 311-317.
Mushtaq, R., Shoib, S., Shah, T., & Mushtaq, S. (2014). Relationship between loneliness, psychiatric disorders, and physical health? A review on the psychological aspects of loneliness. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 8(9), WE01–WE4. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/10077.4828
Neill-Hall, J. (2013). Family doctors ill-equipped for loneliness epidemic. London, UK: Campaign to End Loneliness; Available from: www.campaigntoendloneliness.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/11/FINAL-GP-Polling-PR-15.11.13.pdf.
Shevchenko, V. I., Mikheyeva, A. R. (2014). Odinokiye zhenshchiny srednego vozrasta: samovospriyatiye i vospriyatiye drugimi zhenshchinami // Vestn. Novosib. gos. un-ta. Seriya: Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskiye nauki. T. 14, 1. S. 192-201.
Tiwari S. C. (2013). Loneliness: A disease? Indian journal of psychiatry, 55(4), 320–322.
Yanguas, J., Pinazo-Henandis, S., & Tarazona-Santabalbina, F. J. (2018). The complexity of loneliness. Acta bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis, 89(2), 302–314. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v89i2.7404
Yarnoz-Yaben, S. (2008). Adaptación al castellano de la escala para la evaluación de la soledad social y emocional en adultos SESLA-S. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8(1), 103-116. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/560/56080109.pdf
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author is the copyright holder. Distribution license: CC Attribution 4.0.